Muhammad and the Bible
Arguments that prophecies of Muhammad in the Bible presaged his birth, teachings, and death have formed part of Muslim tradition from the religion’s early history. Subsequent Muslim writers have expanded on these viewpoints and have argued that they can specifically identify references to Muhammad in the text of the Bible, being found both in the Jewish Tanakh and in the Christian New Testament.
Data from: Wikipedia
Suggest an edit
Muhammad and the Bible – Wikipedia
Biblical verses claimed to be prophecies of Muhammad
10 “The scepter shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, [k]Until Shiloh comes, And to him shall be the obedience of the peoples. 11 “[l]He ties his foal to the vine, And his donkey’s colt to the choice vine; He washes his garments in wine, And his robes in the blood of grapes. […] […] Or, Until he comes to Shiloh; or, Until he comes to whom it belongs […] Lit Binding of — Genesis 49:10,11 (New American Standard Bible)
Kais Al-Kalby and David Benjamin Keldani read this prophecy in the light of Qur’an 3:81 as a prophecy of Muhammad. David Benjamin believes that the Hebrew word Shiloh is actually a distortion of the Hebrew word shǎluḥ which means “one who is sent, apostle, messenger” or of the Hebrew word Shilūăḥ which “correspond[s] exactly to the ‘Apostle of Yah'”.
The Latin Vulgate translates the word as “He … that is to be sent”.
Shiloh is also the name of a city in the Bible.
18 I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee; and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him. 19 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto My words which he shall speak in My name, I will require it of him. 20 But the prophet, that shall speak a word presumptuously in My name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, that same prophet shall die.— Deuteronomy 18:18-20, Jewish Publication Society (1917)
Samau’al al-Maghribi, a Jewish mathematician who converted to Islam, pointed to Deuteronomy 18:18 in his book Convincing the Jews as a prophecy fulfilled by Muhammad. Samau’al argued in his book that since the children of Esau are described in Deuteronomy 2:4-6 [and in Numbers 20:14 as well] as the brethren of the children of Israel, the children of Ishmael can also be described the same way.
The comparison between Moses and Muhammad is quite common in the Qur’an and the Islamic tradition. Ka‘ab al-Ahbar said: “Verily God Most High divided His vision and His conversation between Muhammad and Moses. He spoke to Moses twice, and Muhammad saw Him twice.”
A minority opinion among Muslim scholars is that the Prophet didn’t see God. This opinion is found among Salafi Muslims. This is supported by Quran verse 104 in Al’Anaam Surat 6 “Vision perceives Him not, but He perceives [all] vision; and He is the Subtle, the Acquainted.”
However the majority of Sunni scholars say Muhammad did see God in two visions once in a dream state in his early prophet hood and another vision on the Night Journey.
It is also reported in the books of hadiths that Muhammad declared before his companions that he and Ali are like Moses and Aaron.
Some Muslim writers, like Muhammad Ali, interpreted Qur’an 46:10 as a reference to Deuteronomy 18:18. The witness from among the Children of Israel is thought to be Moses, and the one like him is believed to be Muhammad.
The Qur’an (73:15) was also interpreted by some Muslim writers, like Fethullah Gülen, as a reference to Deuteronomy 18:18.
John 1:20–21 was also cited by Muslims as a proof from the canonical gospels that Deuteronomy 18:18 is not a prophecy of the Christ Abdullah Jahangir claims that according to John 1:20–21, Jews believed the promised Messiah (Jesus) and the promised prophet (Muhammad) would be two separate persons. And that is why, they asked John who he (John) was. He did not fail to confess, but confessed freely, “I am not the Messiah.” They asked him, “Then who are you? Are you Elijah?” He said, “I am not.” “Are you the Prophet?’” He answered, “No.” (John 1:20-21)
Also according to John 7:40–41, it can be said that, during the lifetime of Jesus, Jews were waiting for the promised prophet which was mentioned in Deuteronomy 18:18, and they believed the promised prophet would come and he would be different from the promised Messiah. On hearing his words, some of the people said, “Surely this man is the Prophet.” Others said, “He is the Messiah.” Still others asked, “How can the Messiah come from Galilee?” (John 7:40-41)
“He said, “The Lord came from Sinai and dawned from Seir upon us; he shone forth from Mount Paran; he came from the ten thousand of holy ones, with flaming fire at his right hand.”— Deuteronomy 33:2
Al-Samawal al-Maghribi referred to this verse also in his book as a prophecy of Muhammad. He said that Mount Sinai refers to Moses, Mount Seir “the Mount of Esau” refers to Jesus, and Mount Paran”the Mount of Ishmael” refers to Muhammad.
Some contemporary Muslim scholars have also pointed to the similarity between Deuteronomy 33:2 and Qur’an 95:1-3 where “the Fig and the Olive” refers to Jesus, “Mount Sinai” refers to Moses, and “Mecca” refers to Muhammad.
The “ten thousand of holy ones” are thought to be the ten thousand companions of Muhammad. See: Conquest of Mecca.
The Psalm (45:1-17) is a prophecy and a song of praise for the king. Several Muslim writers raised the argument that it is describing no one other than Muhammad for the following reasons:
• The beauty of the king: “You are the most excellent of men”. [Psalm 45:2]
• The sword of the king and his glorious victories over his enemies: “Gird your sword on your side, you mighty one; clothe yourself with splendor and majesty. In your majesty ride forth victoriously in the cause of truth, humility and justice; let your right hand achieve awesome deeds. Let your sharp arrows pierce the hearts of the king’s enemies; let the nations fall beneath your feet”. [Psalm 45:3-5]
• Kings’ daughters [Ayesha, Hafsa and Safiyya] are among the honorable women of the king: “Daughters of kings are among your honored women” [Psalm 45:9]:
• King David addressing Safiyya bint Huyayy “his daughter” who married Muhammad: “Listen, daughter, and pay careful attention: Forget your people and your father’s house. Let the king be enthralled by your beauty; honor him, for he is your lord.” [Psalm 45:10-11]
• gifts sent by kings [Al-Muqawqis] to him: “The city of Tyre will come with a gift, people of wealth will seek your favor.” [Psalm 45:12]
• His name is “the highly-praised one”: “I will perpetuate your memory through all generations; therefore the nations will praise you for ever and ever.” [Psalm 45:17]
A Psalm of David. The LORD said to my lord: “Sit at My right, Until I make thine enemies thy footstool.”— Psalm 110:1
Several Muslim writers, like Afzal-ur-Rahman and David Benjamin Keldani, raised the argument that Psalm 110:1 is also a prophecy of Muhammad and his ascension to the Throne of God during the journey of al-Isra and al-Miraj. In the Gospels, Jesus applies this verse to himself, referring to “my lord” as the Christ, a title which he later claims for himself.
And the book is delivered to him that is not learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I am not learned.— Isaiah 29:12
Muslim scholars interprets this verse as a prophecy of Muhammad, as tradition says that when the Archangel Gabriel commanded Muhammad to read something, he replied “I am not learned.” The same verse is read in Christian commentaries as referring to the unbelieving people, who do not believe nor understand the words of the prophet Isaiah. His visions become like a sealed book whose meaning is hidden.
The voice of one crying in the wilderness: “Prepare the way of the Lord; Make straight in the desert a highway for our God.— Isaiah 40:3
Christians accept that this text as referring to John the Baptist, the cousin of Jesus, as he lived in the wilderness and prophesied about the coming of Jesus. The gospel of Mark cites this passage and applies it to John the Baptist directly. The interpretation of Isaiah 40:3-5 as a prophecy of Muhammad is common among Muslims. Ali Ünal cites Qur’an 1:6-7 which reads: “[1:6] Guide us to the straight path: [1:7] the path of those You have blessed; not of those who have incurred Your wrath, nor of those who have gone astray.”
“Behold! My Servant, whom I uphold; My Elect One, in whom My soul delights! I have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice to the Gentiles. He shall not cry out, nor raise His voice, nor cause His voice to be heard in the street. A bruised reed shall He not break, and smoking flax shall He not quench. In truth He shall bring forth justice. He shall not fail nor be discouraged, till He has established justice in the earth; and the islands shall wait for His law.”— Isaiah 42:1-4
Isaiah 42 is among the earliest and the most common prophecies referred to by Muslims. Since the time of Muhammad, Muslims believed that it was fulfilled by no one other than him. The first verse begins with: “Behold my Servant, whom I uphold; mine Elect…”. The Hebrew word which was translated to “whom I uphold” is “אתמך”(Etmokh). This word never appears anywhere in the entire Bible except here. Muslim authors, pointing to the similarity between the writing of “אתמך”(etmokh) and the writing of “אחמד” which is the name Ahmad, suggested that an intended distortion might have been done by the scribes of Scripture in the first verse of this chapter in order to hide the name of the Chosen Servant of God which is “אחמד” (Ahmad). Muhammad is believed by Muslims to be the Chosen Servant of God and his Light, while Christians believe that Jesus was God, begotten of God, not the servant of God.Thus, some Muslim writers argue Christians have no right to call Isaiah 42 a prophecy of Jesus. Qur’an 3:159, Qur’an 9:128 and Qur’an 68:4 shed a light on the gentle character of Muhammad, and from the time they knew him, Muslims looked at Muhammad as the mercy sent by God to all the creation. Among the ones who believed that Muhammad fulfilled Isaiah 42 was Ayeshah bint Abī Bakr “the wife of Muhammad”,’Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, Ka’ab al-Ahbar, and Abdullah ibn Salam.
Sing unto the Lord a new song, and His praise from the ends of the earth, you who go down to the sea, and all that is therein, the islands, and the inhabitants thereof! Let the wilderness and its cities lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar inhabits. Let the inhabitants of Sela sing, let them shout from the top of the mountains. Let them give glory to the Lord, and declare His praise in the islands. The Lord shall go forth like a mighty man; He shall stir up jealousy like a man of war: He shall cry, yea, roar; He shall prevail against His enemies.— Isaiah 42:10-13
Isaiah 42:13 is believed to be a prophecy of the Muslim conquests. “the new song” is often interpreted as a reference to the Arabic Qur’an or to the Adhan “the Islamic call to prayer”. The Islands could be a reference to Indonesia and Malaysia.
The mention of Mount Sela‘ “the mountain of Medina” and the mention of Kedar “the forefather of Muhammad”, in verse 11, is also considered by Muslims to be a proof.
“Sing, O barren, You who have not borne! Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, You who have not labored with child! For more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married woman,” says the Lord.— Isaiah 54:1
Muslim writers argue that the “barren one” refers to Mecca, since no prophet came from it before Muhammad. Rahmatullah Kairanawi argues in his book that “have not labored with child” means “haven’t received a prophet”. They argue that the “desolate woman” refers to Hagar, and the “married woman” refers to Sarah.
“Enlarge the place of your tent, stretch your tent curtains wide, do not hold back; lengthen your cords, strengthen your stakes. For you will spread out to the right and to the left— Isaiah 54:2-3
This passage is believed to be a prophecy of the Muslim conquests.
Daniel 7 was discussed by various Muslim authors who identified the fourth beast in the vision as the Roman Empire. The 10 horns which came from the Roman Empire were identified as the 10 Roman emperors who ran what is widely known in history as the 10 Major Persecutions:
4. Marcus Aurelius.
5. Septimius Severus.
The 11th horn was identified as the Roman emperor Constantine I and the Nicene Creedwhich was produced by him in order to change the law and time. Consequently, the Nicene Christianity persecuted the followers of Jesus whom they called Arians for three centuries and a half [Daniel 7:25 says that the persecution will continue for a time, times and half a time] before the rise of the Kingdom of Islam. “The One like the Son of man” in this vision is interpreted by Muslims as a prophecy of Muhammad and his ascension to the Throne of God. The three horns which were subdued by the 11th horn are identified as the three Roman emperors Licinius, Maxentius and Maximian who were subdued by Constantine I.
Some circulated opinions led Muslims to think that Mahoma is deformed by Paulus Alvarus from the word Maozim in the Latin Vulgate version of the Bible, the Book of Daniel (XI, 38) “Deum autem Maozim in loco suo venerabitur”. Maozim has been related to the worship of a false god, then to the Antichrist. This point has been discussed in Ahlam Sbaihat’s investigation about prototypes and stereotypes related to the Prophet’s name since the Greek era. In this paper, she discusses the possibility of missing words in the Latin manuscript of Alvarus of Cordoba that may lead to a misconception of the text: “why would the muezzins to safeguard such Maozim”? In addition, in the Old Greek Septuagint, then in Arabic and Hebrew translations the word Maozim is translated as “the God of forces”.
God will come from the south, and the holy one from mount Pharan: His glory covered the heavens, and the earth is full of his praise.— Habakkuk 3:3
This prophecy is also commonly cited by Muslims as a prophecy of Muhammad. Since there is no connection between Jesus and Mount Paran “the Mount of Ishmael”, Muslims argue that the “holy one” in this verse is Muhammad. They often interpret the Coming of God from the south of Palestine as a reference to the cradle of Islam in the western coast of Arabia.